The term “calculate” comes from the Latin word “calculare,” which means “to reckon” or “to count.” This is derived from the Latin word “calculus,” meaning “a small stone” used for counting or calculating.

1. Proto-Indo-European (PIE)

The PIE root “*kal-” means “to call” or “to shout.”

2. Latin

From the PIE root, the Latin word “calculus” developed, meaning “a small stone.” These small stones were used in ancient times on counting boards or abacuses to perform arithmetic operations. The verb “calculare” derived from “calculus” and meant “to count” or “to reckon.”

3. Old French (c. 9th to 14th century CE)

The Latin term “calculare” evolved into Old French “calculer,” meaning “to count” or “to reckon.”

4. Middle English (c. 11th to 15th century CE)

The Old French “calculer” was adopted into Middle English as “calculate,” maintaining the meaning of “to count” or “to reckon.”

5. Modern English (from 15th century CE to present)

The term “calculate” evolved into its current form and pronunciation, referring to the process of determining something by mathematical or logical methods.

The word “calculate” reflects the concept of performing mathematical operations or making logical determinations. It is fundamental to mathematics, finance, engineering, and various other fields where precise reckoning and quantification are necessary.