The term “chronology” comes from the Greek word “χρονλογία” (chronologia), which means “the calculation of time” or “timekeeping.” It is derived from “χρόνος” (chronos), meaning “time,” and “-λογία” (-logia), meaning “the study of” or “science.”

1. Proto-Indo-European (PIE)

The PIE root “kron-” or “kros-” means “time.”

2. Ancient Greek

From the PIE root, the Ancient Greek word “χρόνος” (chronos) developed, meaning “time.” The suffix “-λογία” (-logia) comes from “λόγος” (logos), meaning “word,” “study,” or “science.” Combined, “χρονλογία” (chronologia) meant “the study of time” or “timekeeping.”

3. Latin

The Greek “χρονλογία” was adopted into Latin as “chronologia,” retaining the same meaning of “the study of time” or “a chronological order of events.”

4. Medieval Latin (c. 5th to 15th century CE)

The term “chronologia” was used in Medieval Latin, maintaining its meaning related to the calculation and arrangement of time.

5. Middle English (c. 11th to 15th century CE)

The Latin “chronologia” was adopted into Middle English as “chronology,” meaning the science of arranging events in their order of occurrence in time.

6. Modern English (from 15th century CE to present)

The term “chronology” evolved into its current form and pronunciation, referring to the arrangement of events or dates in the order of their occurrence.

The word “chronology” reflects the systematic study and arrangement of events in the order they happened. It is fundamental to historical research, timekeeping, and the understanding of temporal sequences in various fields such as history, geology, and astronomy.