The term “manage” comes from the Italian word “maneggiare,” which means “to handle” or “to control a horse.” This is derived from the Latin word “manus,” meaning “hand.”

1. Proto-Indo-European (PIE)

The PIE root “*man-” means “hand.”

2. Latin

From the PIE root, the Latin word “manus” developed, meaning “hand.” The concept of handling or controlling something with the hands evolved into the verb “maneggiare” in Italian, meaning “to handle” or “to control, especially in relation to horses.”

3. Italian (c. 14th to 16th century CE)

The Italian term “maneggiare” evolved to mean “to handle” or “to manage,” particularly in the context of horse training and riding.

4. Old French (c. 9th to 14th century CE)

The Italian “maneggiare” influenced Old French, leading to the development of the word “mesnager,” meaning “to handle” or “to manage.”

5. Middle English (c. 11th to 15th century CE)

The Old French “mesnager” was adopted into Middle English as “manage,” retaining the meaning of “to handle” or “to control.”

6. Modern English (from 15th century CE to present)

The term “manage” evolved into its current form and pronunciation, encompassing meanings related to handling, directing, or controlling something, especially in the context of business or resources.

Phonetic Evolution

Over time, the pronunciation of “manage” has remained relatively stable from Middle English to Modern English.

Usage Examples

  • “Manage is often used to describe the act of handling, directing, or controlling something.”
  • “Another example of ‘manage’ in a sentence is ‘She knows how to manage a team effectively.'”
  • “It can also refer to coping or dealing with a situation, as in ‘He managed to finish the project on time.'”

Cultural or Historical Notes

The development of the word “manage” was significantly influenced by its use in various contexts, including animal handling, household management, and business administration. Managing has been associated with control, direction, and effective handling of resources and tasks.

The word “manage” reflects the concept of handling and control, emphasizing the importance of directing and organizing tasks, resources, and people effectively. It underscores the role of management in achieving goals, maintaining order, and ensuring efficient operation in various aspects of life, from personal responsibilities to business operations and organizational leadership.